The skin is often affected by lupus, and plays a very important role in diagnosing the illness—whether it’s the skin-only form (cutaneous lupus erythematosus) or the body-wide “systemic” lupus erythematosus.
Common types of cutaneous lupus include chronic cutaneous lupus, which often involves thick and scaly red “discoid” rash lesions and patchy hair loss, and acute cutaneous lupus, which often involves a malar “butterfly-shaped” rash across the cheeks and nose and in some cases the development of fluid-filled “bullous” lupus lesions.
In systemic lupus, the body’s overactive immune system forms antibodies that attack and damage not just the skin but other crucial tissues and organs such as the kidneys, heart, lungs, blood and joints. Four of the eleven official criteria for systemic lupus are skin-related: malar rash, discoid rash, sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) and oral ulcerations.
Most people are anxious to know if something in their lifestyle or diet caused lupus. It’s still not clear why certain people get the disease, but both genes and environmental triggers likely play a role. Any blood relative with an autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis may pass along the genes that predispose a relative to lupus. And then environmental triggers cause the disease to develop and flare.
Lupus can cause a range of skin reactions that mimic other more common skin disorders, making diagnosis of the illness challenging in many cases. The “butterfly” rash may be mistaken for rosacea, psoriasis, or eczema, for example, and delay the right diagnosis as they initially improve with topical treatments.
Raynaud’s phenomenon in which fingertips turn red, white and blue in reaction to cold temperatures; vasculitis with a breakdown of the skin from inflammation of vessels near the skin’s top layer; a red mottling or lacelike appearance under the skin called livedo reticularis and the appearance of red or purple discolorations under the skin (purpura) caused by bleeding. Also, corticosteroid drugs commonly used to treat lupus can cause complications such as black and blue marks and skin thinning.
Filler and laser technology has exciting potential to improve scarring and pigment disturbances and may be less risky than plastic surgery in some people, but shouldn’t be done unless the disease is in full remission and by a doctor knowledgeable about these techniques and about lupus. Camouflage makeup, when properly blended and applied, can often completely conceal skin discoloration and scarring.
The sun’s UVB and UVA ultraviolet rays are major lupus triggers that can prompt photosensitivity reactions 365 days a year—on cloudy as well as sunny days—and in as little time as it takes to walk to the corner store. UVB rays are normally associated with sunburn and tans. UVA rays, which are present in all seasons and from dawn until dusk, penetrate more deeply into the skin but don’t cause redness or burn, and are therefore less likely to be recognized as lupus flare triggers.
Many people worry about this, but in fact only 1 in 10 people with cutaneous lupus develops the systemic form of the disease. By protecting yourself from environmental triggers such as sunlight and cigarette smoke, as well as keeping watch for so-called “Markers of Transition” to systemic lupus with the help of experienced doctors, you can help to prevent this serious transition and even possibly reverse its course if it starts. The “markers” include the appearance of skin ulcers, calcium deposits and nodules under the skin, and the development of generalized joint and/or muscle pain, rash below the neck, and protein or blood in the urine.
Reviewer: Daniel J. Wallace, MD